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Some examples of genes that may have somatic mutations include: IDH1 and IDH2 genes (associated with acute myeloid leukemia [AML], gliomas and chondrosarcomas); NPM1 and FLT3 genes (associated with AML).
Individualized molecular tumor profiling is a laboratory method of testing a panel of tumor markers, which may include genetic as well as biochemical markers, to establish a personalized molecular profile of a tumor to recommend treatment options.
This method is purportedly used for screening, diagnosis and/or monitoring of cancer cells that may otherwise require a tissue sample.
Multianalyte assays with algorithmic analyses (MAAAs) are laboratory measurements that use a mathematical formula to analyze multiple markers that may be associated with a particular disease state and are designed to evaluate disease activity or an individual’s risk for disease.
Tumors may be evaluated with histology, which involves examination of the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues.
Methods of detecting tumor markers include, but are not limited to: Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) – Laboratory technique used to detect small deletions or rearrangements in chromosomes.
Liquid biopsy refers to serum testing for DNA fragments that are shed by cancer cells and released into the bloodstream.Currently, the main use of tumor mfarkers is to assess a cancer's response to treatment and to check for recurrence.